Qutub Shahu Dynasty ruled the Golkonda Kingdom, i.e. most of the modern day Telangana and some of the modern day Andhra Pradesh for a period little less than two centuries (1512-1687). They gave Hyderabad to the world and they also gave the city some of its iconic structures like the Golkonda Fort, Mecca Masjid and more. Here are some things you need to know about the Qutub Shahi Dynasty.
1. The Founder of Qutub Shahi Dynasty:
Sultan Quli Qutub Shah was the founder of the dynasty. He declared independence from the Bahamani Sultanate and took over the title of Qutub Shah. After a successful 30 year rule, he was killed by his son who took over the throne.
2. Hyderabad’s Central Asian Connection:
The Qutub Shahi rulers originated from the Kara Koyunlu dynasty which ruled over Central Asian countries like Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Turkey, and Iraq.
3. The Persian Hyderabad:
After establishing the dynasty, Persian was introduced as the official language of administration.
4. Expansion and Extent of Golkonda Kingdom:
Sultan Quli Qutub Shah vastly expanded the kingdom, by capturing forts at Warangal, Kondapalli, Eluru, and Rajamundry. He later defeated Sitapati Raju, the ruler of Khammam, and captured the fort. He forced Odisha’s ruler to surrender all the territories between the mouths of Krishna and Godavari rivers; enabling him to occupy Eluru, Rajamundry and Machilipatnam extending his rule to Coastal Andhra.
5. Strengthening Hindu-Muslim Relations:
It was under the fifth ruler, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah, that Hindu-Muslim relations began strengthening and both communities started living in complete harmony. In fact, some Hindus even rose to prominent levels in the administration like Akkanna and Madanna.
6. The Telugu Sultans:
Though they started off by introducing Persian as the official language; they later started using Telugu as the primary language of administration in the kingdom; earning them the title of ‘Telugu Sultans’.
7. Patrons of Telugu Literature:
They patronized literature extensively and Telugu played a major role. In fact, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah wrote over 1800 pages of verses and ghazals in Persian, Urdu and Telugu.
8. Establishment of Hyderabad:
The city of Hyderabad was established by Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah, the most significant of all the rulers of the dynasty, in the year 1591. He brought architects from all around the world to lay out the city, which was built on a grid plan and named it after Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib Hyder.
9. The Icon of Hyderabad, Charminar:
The Charminar was constructed to mark the establishment of the new city in the year 1594, by Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah.
10. Originators of The Hyderabadi Lingo:
Hyderabad has its unique, iconic version of Urdu; known as Deccani Urdu. The Qutub Shahi Dynasty is credited with this language.
11. Part of Sri Rama Navami Celebrations at Bhadrachalam:
The royal custom of sending gifts to the Bhadrachalam Temple on Sri Rama Navami was started by the Qutub Shahi Dynasty, after releasing the poet Ramadasu from the Qutub Shahi Prison.
12. Their Final Resting Place:
The Qutub Shahi Tombs are the final resting place of the Qutub Shahi Dynasty and are located a kilometer from Golkonda. These structures are made of beautifully carved stonework, and surrounded by landscaped gardens.
13. Introduction of Indo-Persian Architecture:
The unique architecture of the Qutub Shahi Dynasty is a perfect blend of Indian and Persian architectural styles and can be seen in monuments like the Golkonda Fort, Charminar, Mecca Masjid, Toli Mosque,
14. The Only Diamond Mine In The World:
For a very long time, it was believed that Golkonda Mines were the only diamond mines in the world; till the discovery of other diamond mines. In fact, famed diamonds like the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond and the Regent Diamond were mined here and were a part of the jewel collection of the Dynasty.
15. Disestablishment of The Dynasty:
Shah Jahan forced the Qutub Shahi Dynasty to swear allegiance to the Mughal Kingdom in 1636 and later from 1683, the relations between the Mughals and the Qutub Shahis worsened and finally, Aurangzeb conquered the Golkonda Kingdom in the year 1687. This marked the end of the Qutub Shahi Dynasty.